This chapter mainly focuses on the time being (after the fall of Constantinople) where feudal system got stronger; the importance between Rome and Christianity. The popes got real power and got control over decisions about the city, which also made them in charge of any urban design and regulations. Architecture was directed by religion, it also reflects the importance and the immense power of religion. They made radical changes; they re-designed the city. They constructed new streets and arranged the old ones accordingly. The importance here is that the socially important concepts are also tangible in the city buildings and the buildings related with the city. The popes are also contributing to the architecture by increasing their respect and reputation within the society. City now had new point of inflluence which controls the growth of the city; basilicas (the religious structures) are the focus points like cores. The pope also made decisions of  economic and architectural manners. He decided on the amount of bugdet which would be spend on architecture.

There is this example of free-standing column in the piazza (which is  framed by two long, curving colonnades) in front of St. Peter Basilica which is mainly positioned at the center of the piazza, emphasized and out in the open. The column is an egyptian obelisk which comes from the Baroque inspiration of the Bernini. It is removed from from its actual place in Egypt, by the order of Pope Sixtus V. The religious and political charaters are meeged into one person which leads the society. The column interconnects the piazza and the basilica but also creates a contrasting effect of the verticality.

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