Alexander the Great is the king who ruled at Hellenistic Age and expanded the territories of his empire tremendously in the fourth century. The word ‘Hellenic’ means Greek and ‘Hellenistic’ refers to the expansion of Greek culture following the conquests of Alexander the Great, and to the opulent style of art and architecture associated with this. Since they have moved toward new lands, they also met with new cultures. The interactions between cultures also caused some alterations in greek art and architecture. (especially in sculpture) I am amazed by those sculptures;
Hellenistic Sculpture is more related with human body proportions and is emerging the gigantomachy frieze. It is different from the perfectionism of the classical age. The face and body of the sculptures were full-filled with emotions (mostly sad emotions, grief). There is no longer focus on the ideal, there is drama in the sculptures. there are new elements in sculptures which are now taking into consideration; the details like agony, old age, sleep condition and the state of being drunk. We can say that Hellenistic Sculpture now embracing imperfections and aiming at finding its imperfections.
Hellenistic architecture is also altered from classical architecture. Similar to Hellenistic Sculpture, it is based on drama and theatricality of the observer. We can consider Hellenistic Architecture as monumental in order to create this atmosphere of theatricality. We see this monumental temples on big scales. Stoas were used to define public space and were mostly found around a city’s agora, turning the city’s central place for civic, administrative, and market elements into a grand space. The Corinthian order was developed during the Hellenistic period. The columnar style of the order is similar in many ways to the Ionic order.
The acropolis of Pergamon is also famous for its monumental architecture. there are some structures which are positioned in higher places providing a larger perspective and emerging a dramatic public space. We can consider there is hierarchy between the built structures. The Altar of Zeus at Pergamon was a monumental u-shaped Ionic building that stood on a high platform and was accessed by a wide-set of stairs. Besides its dramatic architecture, the Altar is known for its gigantomachy frieze and statues of defeated Gauls.”The statue group of the Dying Gauls depicts a defeated trumpeter and a Gallic chief killing himself and his wife. The figures, while enemies Pergamon, are depicted with incredible pathos and heroics to demonstrate their worthiness as adversaries and empower the Attalid victors.”
The quotation source: Boundless. “Pergamon.” Boundless Art History. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. https://www.boundless.com/art-history/textbooks/boundless-art-history-textbook/ancient-greece-6/the-hellenistic-period-67/pergamon-353-10994/